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劉龍珠律師法律評論:微信黃段子或騷擾違法嗎?

作者:劉龍珠律師  於 2016-12-23 10:31 發表於 最熱鬧的華人社交網路--貝殼村

通用分類:法律相關

劉龍珠律師法律評論:微信黃段子或騷擾違法嗎?

有些人會通過微信給她人發騷擾簡訊,那麼問題來了,微信騷擾會觸犯什麼法律呢?今天劉律師要談談這種行為可能會牽涉的兩條罪名——網路跟蹤和網路騷擾。

一、加州刑法典第646.9——跟蹤 (stalking),包括網路跟蹤 (cyberstalking)

加州第一起網路跟蹤案件發生在1999年,一名50歲的男性在向一名28歲的女受害人求愛遭拒后,模仿這位受害人的語氣在多個網路聊天室和論壇上發布受害人的電話號碼和地址,併發信息稱自己(即受害人)幻想在家中被強姦。隨後,經常有陌生男性會到受害人家中並試圖強姦她,這樣的事情發生了至少六次,其中有幾次是在半夜。這名男性被指控跟蹤和唆使性侵,隨後他在19994月認罪,最終被判監禁6年。

網路跟蹤屬於跟蹤的一種方式。如果行為人通過網路或者任何電子媒介給受害人發威脅信息,致使受害人深感恐懼,擔心其本人或者其家人的生命安全,那麼行為人就犯了網路跟蹤罪。

網路跟蹤罪的構成要件是:

1.       通過網路或者任何電子媒介與受害人溝通;

2.       惡意或者蓄意騷擾他/她人;

3.       對他/她人做出了實際的威脅;

4.       使他/她人感受到了合理的恐懼,擔憂其本人或者其家人的生命安全。

這裡的電子媒介包括網路、郵件、簡訊、電話、傳真、視頻等。

只有當以上四個構成要件都達成的時候才構成網路跟蹤罪,缺少任何一個要件行為人都無法被定罪。比如說實際的威脅這一要件,如果行為人的威脅根本就不切實際,例如,行為人給受害人發簡訊說:「如果你不做我女朋友我就讓外星人抓走你!」,很明顯這是無法實現的,那麼這一要件就不能達成,行為人也不能被定罪為網路跟蹤。再比如說「惡意或者蓄意騷擾」這一要件,如果行為人給受害人頻繁發送訊息的行為並無意給受害人帶來恐懼,例如,行為人給受害人狂發求愛簡訊,簡訊並沒有包含任何威脅的字眼,那麼這一要件就無法達成,涉案行為還不構成網路跟蹤。

根據加州刑法典第646.9條,網路跟蹤依據行為人的具體犯罪情節以及有無犯罪前科,可被定性為輕罪或者重罪。如果被定輕罪,那麼行為人可被判最多1年的監禁和不超過1千美元的罰金;如果被定重罪,那麼行為人可被判最多5年的監禁和不超過1千美元的罰金,並且行為人會被記錄為性罪犯,終生都無法消除此犯罪記錄。

二、加州刑法典第653.2條——在網路上發布有害信息,又稱間接的網路騷擾 (indirect cyber harassment)

加州規制在網路上發布有害信息的法律針對的是一種特定的情形,即行為人為了煽動他人去騷擾受害人,而將受害人的隱私信息或者對其不利的信息公布到網路上。一些 蕩婦羞辱」 (「slut shaming」) 言論即屬於這種情形。即使受害人並沒有確切遭受到來自有害信息接收者的騷擾,行為人通過網路散布有害信息的行為也構成網路騷擾。

例如,AB離婚了。鑒於B有家暴行為,A從法院獲得了對B的禁止令 (restraining order)BA充滿了憤恨,於是發推特詆毀A,說A一直都在跟蹤他並且說要殺了他,因此他從法院獲得了針對A的禁止令 。某一天B又發推特說,今天他要去參加一個酒會,昨天A說會去酒會上槍殺他,如果有人在酒會上看到A,請幫忙報警。儘管A並沒有因為B的推文而遭受她人的騷擾,但是B的行為已經構成在網路上傳播有害信息罪。

在網路上發布有害信息屬輕罪,行為人可被判最多1年的監禁,或者不超過1千美元的罰金,或者兩者並罰。

三、網路跟蹤與在網路上發布有害信息的區別

網路跟蹤是對受害人的直接騷擾和威脅,即行為人直接給受害人發送騷擾或者威脅信息,受害人感受到了恐懼;而網路騷擾則是以一種更間接的方式來對受害人造成傷害,即行為人將涉及受害人的有害信息發到網上,引發了他人對受害人的騷擾。

四、其他可能會觸犯的法律

如果行為人與受害人關係親密,比如說是受害人的未婚夫/妻、配偶、同居人、約會對象等,那麼行為人的網路騷擾行為可能還會觸犯加州家庭暴力法律,被判更重的刑罰。

而如果受害人是不滿18周歲的未成年人,那麼行為人給受害的未成年人發送淫穢、色情信息的行為除了構成網路跟蹤罪之外,可能還會觸犯加州刑法典第288.2條,構成給未成年人發送淫穢信息罪。

 

法律原文:

CA Penal Code

 

646.9.

  

(a) Any person who willfully, maliciously, and repeatedly follows or willfully and maliciously harasses another person and who makes a credible threat with the intent to place that person in reasonable fear for his or her safety, or the safety of his or her immediate family is guilty of the crime of stalking, punishable by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year, or by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment, or by imprisonment in the state prison.

(b) Any person who violates subdivision (a) when there is a temporary restraining order, injunction, or any other court order in effect prohibiting the behavior described in subdivision (a) against the same party, shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or four years.

(c) (1) Every person who, after having been convicted of a felony under Section 273.5, 273.6, or 422, commits a violation of subdivision (a) shall be punished by imprisonment in a county jail for not more than one year, or by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment, or by imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or five years.

(2) Every person who, after having been convicted of a felony under subdivision (a), commits a violation of this section shall be punished by imprisonment in the state prison for two, three, or five years.

(d) In addition to the penalties provided in this section, the sentencing court may order a person convicted of a felony under this section to register as a sex offender pursuant to Section 290.006.

(e) For the purposes of this section, 「harasses」 means engages in a knowing and willful course of conduct directed at a specific person that seriously alarms, annoys, torments, or terrorizes the person, and that serves no legitimate purpose.

(f) For the purposes of this section, 「course of conduct」 means two or more acts occurring over a period of time, however short, evidencing a continuity of purpose. Constitutionally protected activity is not included within the meaning of 「course of conduct.」

(g) For the purposes of this section, 「credible threat」 means a verbal or written threat, including that performed through the use of an electronic communication device, or a threat implied by a pattern of conduct or a combination of verbal, written, or electronically communicated statements and conduct, made with the intent to place the person that is the target of the threat in reasonable fear for his or her safety or the safety of his or her family, and made with the apparent ability to carry out the threat so as to cause the person who is the target of the threat to reasonably fear for his or her safety or the safety of his or her family. It is not necessary to prove that the defendant had the intent to actually carry out the threat. The present incarceration of a person making the threat shall not be a bar to prosecution under this section. Constitutionally protected activity is not included within the meaning of 「credible threat.」

(h) For purposes of this section, the term 「electronic communication device」 includes, but is not limited to, telephones, cellular phones, computers, video recorders, fax machines, or pagers. 「Electronic communication」 has the same meaning as the term defined in Subsection 12 of Section 2510 of Title 18 of the United States Code.

(i) This section shall not apply to conduct that occurs during labor picketing.

(j) If probation is granted, or the execution or imposition of a sentence is suspended, for any person convicted under this section, it shall be a condition of probation that the person participate in counseling, as designated by the court. However, the court, upon a showing of good cause, may find that the counseling requirement shall not be imposed.

(k) (1) The sentencing court also shall consider issuing an order restraining the defendant from any contact with the victim, that may be valid for up to 10 years, as determined by the court. It is the intent of the Legislature that the length of any restraining order be based upon the seriousness of the facts before the court, the probability of future violations, and the safety of the victim and his or her immediate family.

(2) This protective order may be issued by the court whether the defendant is sentenced to state prison, county jail, or if imposition of sentence is suspended and the defendant is placed on probation.

(l) For purposes of this section, 「immediate family」 means any spouse, parent, child, any person related by consanguinity or affinity within the second degree, or any other person who regularly resides in the household, or who, within the prior six months, regularly resided in the household.

(m) The court shall consider whether the defendant would benefit from treatment pursuant to Section 2684. If it is determined to be appropriate, the court shall recommend that the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation make a certification as provided in Section 2684. Upon the certification, the defendant shall be evaluated and transferred to the appropriate hospital for treatment pursuant to Section 2684.

(Amended by Stats. 2007, Ch. 582, Sec. 2.5. Effective January 1, 2008.)

653.2.  

 

(a) Every person who, with intent to place another person in reasonable fear for his or her safety, or the safety of the other person』s immediate family, by means of an electronic communication device, and without consent of the other person, and for the purpose of imminently causing that other person unwanted physical contact, injury, or harassment, by a third party, electronically distributes, publishes, e-mails, hyperlinks, or makes available for downloading, personal identifying information, including, but not limited to, a digital image of another person, or an electronic message of a harassing nature about another person, which would be likely to incite or produce that unlawful action, is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by up to one year in a county jail, by a fine of not more than one thousand dollars ($1,000), or by both that fine and imprisonment.

(b) For purposes of this section, 「electronic communication device」 includes, but is not limited to, telephones, cell phones, computers, Internet Web pages or sites, Internet phones, hybrid cellular/Internet/wireless devices, personal digital assistants (PDAs), video recorders, fax machines, or pagers. 「Electronic communication」 has the same meaning as the term is defined in Section 2510(12) of Title 18 of the United States Code.

(c) For purposes of this section, the following terms apply:

(1) 「Harassment」 means a knowing and willful course of conduct directed at a specific person that a reasonable person would consider as seriously alarming, seriously annoying, seriously tormenting, or seriously terrorizing the person and that serves no legitimate purpose.

(2) 「Of a harassing nature」 means of a nature that a reasonable person would consider as seriously alarming, seriously annoying, seriously tormenting, or seriously terrorizing of the person and that serves no legitimate purpose.

(Amended by Stats. 2009, Ch. 140, Sec. 144. Effective January 1, 2010.)

 


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