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劉龍珠律師特別提醒:不是假新聞!美國海關有權檢查手機

作者:劉龍珠律師  於 2016-3-3 11:00 發表於 最熱鬧的華人社交網路--貝殼村

通用分類:法律相關|已有2評論

關鍵詞:劉龍珠, 海關, 遣返, 檢查手機

劉龍珠律師特別提醒:不是假新聞!美國海關有權檢查手機

/劉龍珠律師

微信號:lawyerlongliu9

 一、近日,微信圈盛傳以下兩個故事:

1、一名中國留學生在入境加拿大時,被海關查出手機微信中存有「疑似未成人淫穢視頻」,隨即被遣返回中國。據悉,這名被遣留學生在溫哥華當地就讀已有15個月,這一次,當Mike(化名)再次進入溫哥華機場準備入境時,卻被CBSA(加拿大邊境服務局)叫進了小黑屋,理由就是,在Mike手機微信群聊中發現了疑似未成年人淫穢視頻。雖然加拿大警方最後認定未構成犯罪,但CBSA人員還是堅持撤銷Mike的簽證,並且在溫哥華機場直接遣返他回中國了!

2、二月中旬,中國留學生S請假半個月回國,26號返美從洛杉磯入境時出了問題,先是被質疑離境理由,后又被質疑學校不正規有移民傾向,然後在「小黑屋」裡被老美海關盤查手機,最終,在被盤問三個多小時后,因為大半年前在微信聊天中,向朋友透露「我不喜歡這個學校,只是臨時掛一下身份」,立即被遣返回中國。更讓這位S同學鬱悶的是,在被遣返的飛機上,S查看自己的手機,想找到那段「害了」她的聊天紀錄,但卻怎麽都找不到。 S心生疑惑,這段半年多以前聊天記錄似​​乎早就被她刪了,但海關竟然還能找出來,讓她感到不寒而慄。

 二、劉龍珠律師觀點:上述事情完全可能發生,而且概率極大

消息傳播之後,很多對美國並未深入瞭解的華人新移民,發帖表示「不相信這是真的」,認為是假新聞。有人甚至認為:海關檢查手機是侵犯人權、窺探個人隱私。

對此,華裔律師劉龍珠提醒大家:美國海關的權利很大,完全有權利檢查入關乘客的私人物品,包括手機和筆記本電腦。不管這個乘客是什麽樣的移民身份(公民、綠卡、國際學生、觀光客),海關都可以檢查。

 三、入關檢查與海關的權力

劉龍珠律師2015年接受主流媒體採訪時,曾將海關的權力和入關檢查事項歸納如下:

1、遊客到達美國口岸時,要接受海關檢查。

儘管按照美國法律,執法機構以人種、國籍、信仰、性別、族裔為理由實施攔截、檢查或拘留是違法的。但是,海關有特別的權力,可以基於遊客的國籍、旅行計劃在邊境口岸實施攔截和檢查。

通常說來,警察在大街上搜查一個嫌犯,需要有「合理依據」(Probable Cause)才能執法。但美國最高法院(The Supreme Court)曾下令,在邊境口岸的執法機構可以不需任何理由就可以搜查(桉例法United States v. Ramsey, 431 U.S. 606 (1977).)。因此,海關在機場檢查旅客的私人物品,不需要理由,也無需搜查令。

2、最高法院進一步裁決:個人在邊境口岸的隱私權利,低於其在美國國境之內。而且,在邊境口岸這個特殊地點,美國憲法第四修正桉中關於個人隱私權與政府利益之間的權衡,在此要向政府方面傾斜。換言之:在邊境口岸,個人不受美國憲法第四修正桉的保護,政府完全佔據主導地位(桉例法Almeida-Sanchez v. United States, 413 U.S. 266 (1973).)。

3、一般情況下,絕大多數旅客的入關程序僅僅只需幾分鐘。但有些時候,為了保證安全,海關會對部份旅客採用「二次審查」程序(Secondary Screening)。在這個程序中,海關有可能會與其它政府機構協作調查,時間會比較長。

4、在「二次審查」程序中,美國公民有權利請律師。非美國公民(綠卡、遊客、國際學生等)是沒有權利就移民身份和入境相關問題請律師的。當然,面對海關的問話,非美國公民可以詢問:是否能夠暫時保持沉默,待諮詢律師之後再回答。海關有可能批准,當然也有可能不批准。

5、非美國公民在邊境口岸沒有權利請律師的原因是:邊境口岸在地理上屬於美國領土,但是從法律意義而言還不是美國的國境之內,因此非美國公民不可以享受到只有在美國國境之內才能享受到的權利。

但是美國公民就沒有這種限制,美國公民在美國國境之外也可以請律師

 四、海關檢查旅客物品(包括手機)以及容易觸犯法律的事項

以下部份內容摘抄自劉龍珠律師新書《如何合法赴美生子》(該書即將出版),現提前發布給對此有困惑的朋友們。

 海關可以查手機

美國海關有權力檢查入關者的隨身物品,包括手機和電腦裡的文檔和聊天記錄。美國海關有懂中文的官員,可以看懂微信記錄。聯邦政府掃蕩月子中心之後,檢查越來越頻繁。

美國海關邊境保護局(Customs and Border Protection, CBP)官方網站上有這樣一段話:

We may also examine your baggage, including electronic equipment, or your car, which we have the legal authority to do.

我們可能會檢查您的包裹,包括電子設備,或您的車輛,我們有法律賦予的權力做這樣的檢查。 

 

 

遊客必須配合海關的檢查,不配合也不行。如果拒絕檢查,將大大加重海關的懷疑,除了被遣返之外,還很有可能會被採取強制檢查措施。就好比拒捕不但沒用,反而罪上加罪。

也不要自作聰明的推說手機和電腦的開機密碼忘記了,或借口電腦、手機裡有夫妻之間的隱私照片不能讓海關看,那樣也會增加被遣返的可能性。

就讓「海天盛宴」留在美好的回憶裡吧,除非你實在想與美國的海關官員分享。

另外,美國法律對涉及未成年人(18歲以下)的色情資料懲罰力度非常嚴厲。聯邦法律規定:

● 對於以商業手段故意接受、運輸、傳播、出售或準備出售涉及未成年人的色情資料的,初犯者將被罰款並處以5年以上20年以下的監禁,累犯者罰款並處以15年以上40年以下的監禁。

● 對於持有或有意觀看涉及未成年人的色情資料的,將被罰款並處以最高10年的監禁。其中涉及12歲以下幼兒色情資料的,處以最高20年的監禁。

由此可見,即使是「持有」相關的色情資料都是有罪的!所以這裡要特別提醒那些有這種精力旺盛的中國青年們:把你們手機、電腦、iPad裡面的島國女優統統刪掉吧。本來亞洲人相對美國人而言就看上去顯小,30歲的長得像15歲,這樣就很容易讓美國海關官員認定你涉嫌「持有、觀看兒童色情資料」。

以下是美國聯邦法律在這方面的原文:

18 U.S. Code § 2252 –

Certain activities relating to material involving the sexual exploitation of minors

 (a) Any person who—

(1) knowingly transports or ships using any means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce or in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce by any means including by computer or mails, any visual depiction, if—

(A) the producing of such visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct; and

(B) such visual depiction is of such conduct;

(2) knowingly receives, or distributes, any visual depiction using any means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce or that has been mailed, or has been shipped or transported in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, or which contains materials which have been mailed or so shipped or transported, by any means including by computer, or knowingly reproduces any visual depiction for distribution using any means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce or in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce or through the mails, if—

(A) the producing of such visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct; and

(B) such visual depiction is of such conduct;

(3) either—

(A) in the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, or on any land or building owned by, leased to, or otherwise used by or under the control of the Government of the United States, or in the Indian country as defined in section 1151 of this title, knowingly sells or possesses with intent to sell any visual depiction; or

(B) knowingly sells or possesses with intent to sell any visual depiction that has been mailed, shipped, or transported using any means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce, or has been shipped or transported in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, or which was produced using materials which have been mailed or so shipped or transported using any means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce, including by computer, if—

(i) the producing of such visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct; and

(ii) such visual depiction is of such conduct; or

(4) either—(A) in the special maritime and territorial jurisdiction of the United States, or on any land or building owned by, leased to, or otherwise used by or under the control of the Government of the United States, or in the Indian country as defined in section 1151 of this title, knowingly possesses, or knowingly accesses with intent to view, 1 or more books, magazines, periodicals, films, video tapes, or other matter which contain any visual depiction; or

(B) knowingly possesses, or knowingly accesses with intent to view, 1 or more books, magazines, periodicals, films, video tapes, or other matter which contain any visual depiction that has been mailed, or has been shipped or transported using any means or facility of interstate or foreign commerce or in or affecting interstate or foreign commerce, or which was produced using materials which have been mailed or so shipped or transported, by any means including by computer, if—

(i) the producing of such visual depiction involves the use of a minor engaging in sexually explicit conduct; and

(ii) such visual depiction is of such conduct;

shall be punished as provided in subsection (b) of this section.

(b)

(1) Whoever violates, or attempts or conspires to violate, paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of subsection (a) shall be fined under this title and imprisoned not less than 5 years and not more than 20 years, but if such person has a prior conviction under this chapter, section 1591, chapter 71section 1591, chapter 71, chapter 109A, or chapter 117, or under section 920 of title 10 (article 120 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice), or under the laws of any State relating to aggravated sexual abuse, sexual abuse, or abusive sexual conduct involving a minor or ward, or the production, possession, receipt, mailing, sale, distribution, shipment, or transportation of child pornography, or sex trafficking of children, such person shall be fined under this title and imprisoned for not less than 15 years nor more than 40 years.

(2) Whoever violates, or attempts or conspires to violate, paragraph (4) of subsection (a) shall be fined under this title or imprisoned not more than 10 years, or both, but if any visual depiction involved in the offense involved a prepubescent minor or a minor who had not attained 12 years of age, such person shall be fined under this title and imprisoned for not more than 20 years, or if such person has a prior conviction under this chapter, chapter 71, chapter 109A, or chapter 117, or under section 920 of title 10 (article 120 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice), or under the laws of any State relating to aggravated sexual abuse, sexual abuse, or abusive sexual conduct involving a minor or ward, or the production, possession, receipt, mailing, sale, distribution, shipment, or transportation of child pornography, such person shall be fined under this title and imprisoned for not less than 10 years nor more than 20 years.

(c) Affirmative Defense.— It shall be an affirmative defense to a charge of violating paragraph (4) of subsection (a) that the defendant—

(1) possessed less than three matters containing any visual depiction proscribed by that paragraph; and

(2) promptly and in good faith, and without retaining or allowing any person, other than a law enforcement agency, to access any visual depiction or copy thereof—

(A) took reasonable steps to destroy each such visual depiction; or

(B) reported the matter to a law enforcement agency and afforded that agency access to each such visual depiction.


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回復 大洋仙生 2016-3-3 19:56
有可能微信早已遭入侵。
回復 qxw66 2016-3-4 12:12
我沒有手機怎麼辦

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