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孔子 Confucius

作者:mandarin  於 2018-1-8 11:55 發表於 最熱鬧的華人社交網路--貝殼村

作者分類:中文學習|通用分類:原創文學

Who is Confucius(孔子kǒng zǐ)?

子(zǐ) is respectful form of address in ancient China reserved for those with moral integrity and knowledge. Kong Zi, known as Confucius, was a Chinese educator and thinker who lived more than 2,000 years ago. His surname was Kong and his full name was Kong Qiu. He was born into a fallen noble family in the State of Lu(now Shandong province).He was intelligent and loved learning since childhood. He became a learned and accomplished man.


He started providing education for commoners when he grew up, believing that everybody, regardless of social status, was entitled to education. He was the first teacher who advocated education for commoners. With regards to teaching methods, he proposed teaching by personal example and in accordance with students' aptitudes.



It is said Kong Zi had more than 3,000 students, 72 of whom became very well-known. Kong Zi established Confucianism which emphasizes 禮li(propriety), 樂yue(music), and 仁ren(benevolence). He advocated running state affairs with morality and etiquette. After Kong Zi's death, his disciples organized his teachings into The Analects which became the sutra of all schools of Confucianism. Most rulers followed Confucianism and elevated Kong Zi to the status of the "great sage".


孔子學院(kǒng zǐ xué yuàn), or the Confucius Institute as it is known to foreigners, is named after Kong Zi. Confucius Institutes are non-profit organization established in recent years by China, which are devoted to teaching Chinese language and introducing Chinese culture. One of their tasks is to provide standard and authoritative textbooks and learning channels for Chinese-language learners around the world. Up to now, 457 Confucius Institutes and 70 Confucius classes have been set up in more than 122 countries and regions. Kong Zi's teachings and Confucianism is gradually spreading around the world.


Selected Confucius Quotes


君子不以言舉人,不以人廢言

The superior man does not promote a man simply on account of his words, not does he put aside good words because of the man.


當仁,不讓於師。

When it comes to benevolence, one need not give precedence even to his teacher.


君子和而不同,小人同而不合。

The superior man aims at harmony but not at uniformity. The mean man aims at uniformity but not at harmony.


欲速則不達,見小利則大事不成。

If you have things done hastily, you will not reach the goal. If you only see small gains, you will not accomplish great tasks.


歲寒,然後知松柏之後凋也。

only when the year becomes cold do we know how the pine and the cypress are the last to fade.


君子敬而無失,與人恭而有禮。四海之內,皆兄弟也,君子何患乎無兄弟也。

Let the superior man never fail reverentially to order his own conduct, and let him be respectful to others and observant of propriety:-- then all within the whole country will be his brothers. What has the superior man to do with being distressed because he has no brothers?


何以報德?以直報怨,以德報德。

With what then will you recompense kindness? Recompense injury with justice, and recompense kindness with kindness.


道不同,不相為謀。

Those whose courses are different cannot lay plans for one another.


溫故而知新,可以為師矣。

If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as continually to be acquiring new, he may be a teacher of others.


知之者,不如好之者,好之者,不如樂之者。

They who know the truth are not equal to those who love it, and they who love it are not equal to those who delight in it.

默而識之,學而不厭,誨人不倦,何有於我哉。

The silent treasuring up of knowledge; learning without satiety; and instructing others without being wearied -- which one of these things belongs to me?

我非生而知之者,好古,敏以求之者也。

I am not one who was born in the possession of knowledge; I am one who is fond of antiquity, and earnest in seeking it there.

三人行,必有我師焉。擇其善者而從之,其不善者而改之。 
When I walk along with two others, they may serve me as my teachers. I will selec their good qualities and follow them, their bad qualities and avoid them.


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