倍可親

釣魚島/尖閣列島背後難以忽視的真相(zt)

作者:smith_h2  於 2012-9-23 23:19 發表於 最熱鬧的華人社交網路--貝殼村

通用分類:熱點雜談|已有45評論

關鍵詞:釣魚島

 

在芝加哥公差,收到老美同事的email,這是紐約時報里的博文,感到值得一讀,與大家分享,祝福大家周末新周愉快!!

從此博文事實-- 釣魚島是日本在1895年趁著甲午戰後,在未公開的情況下竊占的。

圖,傳不上來,Qyed幫忙下,終於傳上來,還有Qyed幫忙翻譯了一段編者觀點 在此謝謝Qyed!!

原文請 click link:

http://kristof.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/09/19/the-inconvenient-truth-behind-the-diaoyusenkaku-islands/

也就是說,當我審視問題的實質,看哪方的理由更充足時,我同情中國的立場。雖然不是百分之百明確,部分原因是中國似乎在1945年和1970年間默許了日本的主權,但總的來說,我覺得中國擁有主權的證據頗為引人注目,而最有效的證據正是從舊日本政府文件中表明的, 指明日本實際上於1895年從中國偷走了那島嶼作為戰爭的戰利品。本文由漢宜蕭,一個來自台灣的學者,探討了這些文件。我邀請日本學者也來這裡提出與此相反的法律證據——(編者)尼古拉斯•克里斯托夫


The Inconvenient Truth Behind the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands

By HAN-YI SHAW

Diaoyu Island is recorded under Kavalan, Taiwan in Revised Gazetteer of Fujian Province (1871).

I』ve had a longstanding interest in the Diaoyu/Senkaku islands, the subject of a dangerous territorial dispute  between Japan and China. The United States claims to be neutral but in effect is siding with Japan, and we could be drawn in if a war ever arose. Let me clear that I deplore the violence in the recent anti-Japan protests in China:  the violence is reprehensible and makes China look like an irrational bully. China』s government should rein in this volatile nationalism rather than feed it. This is a dispute that both sides should refer to the International Court of Justice, rather than allow to boil over in the streets. That said, when I look at the underlying question of who has the best claim, I』m sympathetic to China』s position. I don』t think it is 100 percent clear, partly because China seemed to acquiesce to Japanese sovereignty between 1945 and 1970, but on balance I find the evidence for Chinese sovereignty quite compelling. The most interesting evidence is emerging from old Japanese government documents and suggests that Japan in effect stole the islands from China in 1895 as booty of war. This article by Han-Yi Shaw, a scholar from Taiwan, explores those documents. I invite any Japanese scholars to make the contrary legal case. – Nicholas Kristof

Japan』s recent purchase of the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands has predictably reignited tensions amongst China, Japan, and Taiwan. Three months ago, when Niwa Uichiro, the Japanese ambassador to China, warned that Japan』s purchase of the islands could spark an 「extremely grave crisis」 between China and Japan, Tokyo Governor Ishihara Shintaro slammed Niwa as an unqualified ambassador, who 「needs to learn more about the history of his own country」.

Ambassador Niwa was forced to apologize for his remarks and was recently replaced. But what is most alarming amid these developments is that despite Japan』s democratic and pluralist society, rising nationalist sentiments are sidelining moderate views and preventing rational dialogue.

The Japanese government maintains that the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands are Japanese territory under international law and historical point of view and has repeatedly insisted that no dispute exists. Despite that the rest of the world sees a major dispute, the Japanese government continues to evade important historical facts behind its unlawful incorporation of the islands in 1895.

Specifically, the Japanese government asserts, 「From 1885 on, our government conducted on-site surveys time and again, which confirmed that the islands were uninhabited and there were no signs of control by the Qing Empire.」

My research of over 40 official Meiji period documents unearthed from the Japanese National Archives, Diplomatic Records Office, and National Institute for Defense Studies Library clearly demonstrates that the Meiji government acknowledged Chinese ownership of the islands back in 1885.

Following the first on-site survey, in 1885, the Japanese foreign minister wrote, 「Chinese newspapers have been reporting rumors of our intention of occupying islands belonging to China located next to Taiwan.… At this time, if we were to publicly place national markers, this must necessarily invite China』s suspicion.…」

In November 1885, the Okinawa governor confirmed 「since this matter is not unrelated to China, if problems do arise I would be in grave repentance for my responsibility」.

「Surveys of the islands are incomplete」 wrote the new Okinawa governor in January of 1892. He requested that a naval ship Kaimon be sent to survey the islands, but ultimately a combination of miscommunication and bad weather made it impossible for the survey to take place.

Japan Diplomatic Records Office.Letter dated May 12, 1894 affirming that the Meiji government did not repeatedly investigate the disputed islands.

「Ever since the islands were investigated by Okinawa police agencies back in 1885, there have been no subsequent field surveys conducted,」 the Okinawa governor wrote in 1894.

After a number of Chinese defeats in the Sino-Japanese War, a report from Japan』s Home Ministry said 「this matter involved negotiations with China… but the situation today is greatly different from back then.」 The Meiji government, following a cabinet decision in early 1895, promptly incorporated the islands.

Negotiations with China never took place and this decision was passed during the Sino-Japanese War. It was never made public.

In his biography Koga Tatsushiro, the first Japanese citizen to lease the islands from the Meiji government, attributed Japan』s possession of the islands to 「the gallant military victory of our Imperial forces.」

Collectively, these official documents leave no doubt that the Meiji government did not base its occupation of the islands following 「on-site surveys time and again,」 but instead annexed them as booty of war. This is the inconvenient truth that the Japanese government has conveniently evaded.

Japan asserts that neither Beijing nor Taipei objected to U.S. administration after WWII. That』s true, but what Japan does not mention is that neither Beijing nor Taipei were invited as signatories of the San Francisco Peace Treaty in 1951, from which the U.S. derived administrative rights.

When Japan annexed the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands in 1895, it detached them from Taiwan and placed them under Okinawa Prefecture. Moreover, the Japanese name 「Senkaku Islands」 itself was first introduced in 1900 by academic Kuroiwa Hisashi and adopted by the Japanese government thereafter. Half a century later when Japan returned Taiwan to China, both sides adopted the 1945 administrative arrangement of Taiwan, with the Chinese unaware that the uninhabited 「Senkaku Islands」 were in fact the former Diaoyu Islands. This explains the belated protest from Taipei and Beijing over U.S. administration of the islands after the war.

 

Report dated August 12, 1892 from navy commander affirming the islands were not fully investigated. Source:  Library of The National Institute for Defense Studies.

The Japanese government frequently cites two documents as evidence that China did not consider the islands to be Chinese. The first is an official letter from a Chinese consul in Nagasaki dated May 20, 1920 that listed the islands as Japanese territory.

Neither Beijing nor Taipei dispute that the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands — along with the entire island of Taiwan — were formally under Japanese occupation at the time. However, per post-WW II arrangements, Japan was required to surrender territories obtained from aggression and revert them to their pre-1895 legal status.

The second piece evidence is a Chinese map from 1958 that excludes the Senkaku Islands from Chinese territory. But the Japanese government』s partial unveiling leaves out important information from the map』s colophon: 「certain national boundaries are based on maps compiled prior to the Second Sino-Japanese War(1937-1945).」

Qing period (1644-1911) records substantiate Chinese ownership of the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands prior to 1895. Envoy documents indicate that the islands reside inside the 「border that separates Chinese and foreign lands.」 And according to Taiwan gazetteers, 「Diaoyu Island accommodates ten or more large ships」 under the jurisdiction of Kavalan, Taiwan.

The right to know is the bedrock of every democracy. The Japanese public deserves to know the other side of the story. It is the politicians who flame public sentiments under the name of national interests who pose the greatest risk, not the islands themselves.

Han-Yi Shaw is a Research Fellow at the Research Center for International Legal Studies, National Chengchi University, in Taipei, Taiwan.


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發表評論 評論 (45 個評論)

回復 小皮狗 2012-9-24 00:51
文章的最後指出的:「中日雙方對民眾的煽情是危險的,不是島嶼的本身。」這是很好的結論。
回復 smith_h2 2012-9-24 00:57
小皮狗: 文章的最後指出的:「中日雙方對民眾的煽情是危險的,不是島嶼的本身。」這是很好的結論。
謝謝!!政府應在前面,以智慧,法理和勇氣處理好  
回復 小皮狗 2012-9-24 01:08
smith_h2: 謝謝!!政府應在前面,以智慧,法理和勇氣處理好   
政府如果存心解決國土爭端倒好了,可惜啊。。。
回復 同往錫安 2012-9-24 02:47
有空再慢慢讀~
回復 五十仙 2012-9-24 03:31
上國際法庭解決爭議,是最好的辦法。當然,釣魚島最後如果屬於亞洲獅的棲息地,由日本或聯合國管轄,是我最樂見的結果。
回復 qyed 2012-9-24 04:20
看到還是有日本人混入這裡搗亂的!是二戰日本侵華時留下的遺子遺孫?
     
回復 qyed 2012-9-24 04:25
謝謝樓主的信息!下面是一段編者節錄及譯文,有錯請指正:
. That said, when I look at the underlying question of who has the best claim, I』m sympathetic to China』s position. I don』t think it is 100 percent clear, partly because China seemed to acquiesce to Japanese sovereignty between 1945 and 1970, but on balance I find the evidence for Chinese sovereignty quite compelling. The most interesting evidence is emerging from old Japanese government documents and suggests that Japan in effect stole the islands from China in 1895 as booty of war. This article by Han-Yi Shaw, a scholar from Taiwan, explores those documents. I invite any Japanese scholars to make the contrary legal case. – Nicholas Kristof
也就是說,當我審視問題的實質,看哪方的理由更充足時,我同情中國的立場。雖然不是百分之百明確,部分是因為中國似乎在1945年和1970年間默許了日本的主權,但總的來說,我覺得中國擁有主權的證據頗為引人注目,而最有效的證據正是從舊日本政府文件中表明的, 指明日本實際上於1895年從中國偷走了那島嶼作為戰爭的戰利品。本文由漢宜蕭,一個來自台灣的學者,探討了這些文件。我邀請日本學者也來這裡提出與此相反的法律證據——(博主)尼古拉斯•克里斯托夫
就是你說的:釣魚島是日本在1895年趁著甲午戰後,在未公開的情況下竊占的。
這裡是你所說文中的圖:




回復 smith_h2 2012-9-24 04:47
小皮狗: 政府如果存心解決國土爭端倒好了,可惜啊。。。
從以上事實:釣魚島是日本在1895年趁著甲午戰後,在未公開的情況下竊占釣魚島;但由日本實際控制了幾十年,在國際法中,如果擱置(釣魚島)主權爭議,對日本有利。
Happy New week!  
回復 smith_h2 2012-9-24 04:49
同往錫安: 有空再慢慢讀~
謝謝!!從以上事實:釣魚島是日本在1895年趁著甲午戰後,在未公開的情況下竊占釣魚島;但由日本實際控制了幾十年,在國際法中,如果擱置(釣魚島)主權爭議,對日本有利。
回復 小皮狗 2012-9-24 04:49
smith_h2: 從以上事實:釣魚島是日本在1895年趁著甲午戰後,在未公開的情況下竊占釣魚島;但由日本實際控制了幾十年,在國際法中,如果擱置(釣魚島)主權爭議,對日本有利。 ...
YOU TOO.THANKS!
回復 smith_h2 2012-9-24 04:52
五十仙: 上國際法庭解決爭議,是最好的辦法。當然,釣魚島最後如果屬於亞洲獅的棲息地,由日本或聯合國管轄,是我最樂見的結果。 ...
謝謝光臨!
從以上事實:釣魚島是日本在1895年趁著甲午戰後,在未公開的情況下竊占釣魚島;雖然日本實際控制了幾十年,希望看到中國人的智慧,爭回釣魚島.
回復 smith_h2 2012-9-24 04:55
qyed: 還是有日本鬼子混入這裡搗亂啊~
難不成是二戰日本侵華時留下的遺子遺孫?
     
謝謝qyed光臨,問好!
回復 smith_h2 2012-9-24 04:58
qyed: 謝謝樓主!這裡是你所說文中的圖:


[img]http://g ...
謝謝您的幫忙!!!!
怎樣放入博文?再謝  
回復 qyed 2012-9-24 05:20
smith_h2: 謝謝您的幫忙!!!!
怎樣放入博文?再謝   
1)右鍵點擊圖片,選擇view image info打開;
2)拷貝Location後面的內容;
3)把拷貝的內容放在你帖中[img][/img]的中間。
還有一個辦法是save圖片后再在文中採用圖片上傳的辦法。
回復 smith_h2 2012-9-24 05:26
qyed: 1)右鍵點擊圖片,選擇view image info打開;
2)拷貝Location後面的內容;
3)把拷貝的內容放在你帖中[img][/img]的中間。
還有一個辦法是save圖片后再在文中采 ...
    謝謝!!!
回復 qyed 2012-9-24 05:54
邵漢儀的原文在這裡:
http://www.cils.nccu.edu.tw/2012/05/07/japans-dubious-claim-to-the-diaoyus/
回復 awang9988 2012-9-24 06:23
釣魚島是中國的, 是勿庸置疑的,願因很簡單,離台灣和福建那麼近, 離日本那末遠, 用腳想都能想明白。  但是,國際社會是不講理的,是實力的平衡。  如果中國很堅定,我想日本會最終讓步。 我不認為美國會為一個小島同中國開戰。 真開戰, 中俄戰美日,是世界的末日。  國際上的有些事, 沒地方講理: 你越退,他越上臉。 你要拚命了,他會後退。

日本本質上是一個融入西方的發達國家, 對中國人至今瞧不起。 所以要讓他們心甘情願的失去釣魚島是不可能的。 積極備戰, 軍事高壓, 才能有作用。  光靠上街遊行是無能的表現。  真正有本事,學俄國和英國。最後這兩個國家失去了什麼? 沒有。
回復 qyed 2012-9-24 06:31
這篇有更多邵漢儀作的研究,更有說服力
http://blog.udn.com/U98960413/6420263

邵漢儀在華爾街日報發表的文中指出,他遍閱1885~1895年間明治時代的日本政府公文書,有四十份以上都顯明明治政府承認中國擁有釣魚台的主權。
回復 smith_h2 2012-9-24 06:37
再謝!!
回復 smith_h2 2012-9-24 06:40
awang9988: 釣魚島是中國的, 是勿庸置疑的,願因很簡單,離台灣和福建那麼近, 離日本那末遠, 用腳想都能想明白。  但是,國際社會是不講理的,是實力的平衡。  如果中國 ...
謝謝阿旺兄,同感!!
中國爭回釣魚島:需要勇氣,需要智慧,非生日本人氣,砸中國人的財物。
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