倍可親

除了人類意識,其它什麼都不存在

作者:RNSandi  於 2011-10-27 05:40 發表於 最熱鬧的華人社交網路--貝殼村

作者分類:原創|通用分類:熱點雜談|已有43評論

Nothing exists except human consciousness.

這兩天的討論的話題讓我想起了很久以前看的一本書,就是George Orwell的「1984」。 那天在翻老的博文里看到了一個詞「烏托邦」,一下子豁然開朗,原來「烏托邦」就是Utopia今天拿出"1984"來又簡單讀了一下,特別是後面的幾個章節。看上去「1984」是寫斯大林和德國納粹的權利控制手段使人性在強度壓榨下變得如行屍走肉,但不能不說所有人類政治群體都存在著這種潛力。「1984」是dystopia(wikipedia中文翻譯:反烏托邦/敵托邦)。

1. Doublethinking(雙重思想)。「1984」說

To know and not to know, to be conscious of complete truthfulness while telling carefully constructed lies, to hold simultaneously two opinions which cancelled out, knowing them to be contradictory and believing in both of them, to use logic against logic, to repudiate morality while laying claim to it, to believe that democracy was impossible and that the Party was the guardian of democracy, to forget, whatever it was necessary to forget, then to draw it back into memory again at the moment when it was needed, and then promptly to forget it again, and above all, to apply the same process to the process itself---that was the ultimate subtlety; consciously to induce unconsciousness, and then, once again, to become unconscious of the act of hypnosis you had just performed. Even to understand the word 『doublethink』 involved the use of doublethink」。

「 The power of holding two contradictory beliefs in one』s mind simultaneously, and accepting both of them……To tell deliberate lies while genuinely believing in them, to forget any fact that has become inconvenient, and then, when it becomes necessary again, to draw it back from oblivion for just as long as it is needed, to deny the existence of objective reality and all the while to take account of doublethink it is necessary to exercise doublethink. For by using the word one admits that one is tempering with reality; by a fresh act of doublethink one erases this knowledge; and so on indefinitely, with the lie always one leap ahead of the truth」.

舉個doublethink例子,書中描寫O』Brien教給Winston 2+25O』Brien明明知道2+2不等於5,可他相信2+25Winston相信2+2=4,他從意識里無法理解為什麼2+2會等於5。而Winston犯的錯是在他不能將自己的意識在否認謊言時完全阻止它,書中叫crimestop」in short, means protective stupidity」. 另一個例子是最優秀的統治者都非常堅信自己可以統治世界,但同時又深深知道這是無法實現的。「For the secret of rulership is to combine a belief in one』s own infallibility with the power of learn from past mistakes World-conquest is believed in most firmly by those who know it to be impossible. This peculiar linking-together of opposites---knowledge with ignorance, cynicism with fanaticism」.

Winston被問到為什麼O』BrienParty這樣打他餓他時,Winston回答『你們想讓我屈服』,而O』Brien說「你錯了!我們不想讓你屈服,我們不想讓任何人屈服在我們之下。我們是在拯救你,因為你病了,我們愛你,我們不想讓任何人受壓迫受痛苦,但Winston你有病了,你的病在於你認識不到自己的病,因為意識到自己的病需要自我毀滅。你認為你看到的2+2=4是不爭的事實,但這是你腦子裡的認識,不是事實。只有通過Party才能看到事實,你要將你自己謙卑下來」。

Winston被問到Party的目的是什麼,Winston回答「你統治我們是為了我們的好處,因為party認為人民沒有統治自己的能力」。O』Brien大叫到「你錯了!大大的錯了!The Party seeks power entirely for its own sake. We are not interested in the good of others; we are interested solely in power. Not wealth or luxury or long life or happiness; only power, pure power. We are different from all the oligarchies of the past in that we know what we are doing. All the others, even those who resembled ourselves, were cowards and hypocrites. The German Nazis and the Russian Communists came very close to us in their methods, but they never had the courage to recognize their own motives. They pretended, perhaps they even believed, that they had seized power unwillingly and for a limited time, and that just round the corner there lay a paradise where human beings would be free and equal. We are not like that! We know that no one ever seizes power with the intention of relinquishing it. Power is not a means; it is an end. One does not establish a dictatorship in order to safeguard a revolution; one makes the revolution in order to establish the dictatorship!」

2. 社會的三個基本層次:高,中,低。

高層的目的是呆在高層;中層的目的是變為高層;低層的目的(如果他有目的的話)是將所有層次廢除,然後建立一個平等和諧的社會。所以,歷史就充滿的這樣的來來回回的鬥爭。高層呆在高層一段時間后,他們自己就對自己缺乏了信心,或他們喪失了統治能力,這樣,中層就起來推翻了高層。中層利用的手段是他們假裝是為了低層的正義和平等來為跟高層鬥爭,這樣低層就為這個目的給中層賣命。但一旦中層變成高層以後,低層則跟以前的地位一樣,還是低層。

所以,「No advance in wealth, no softening of manners, no reform or revolution has ever brought human equality a millimeter nearer. From the point of view of the Low, no historic change has ever meant much more than a change in the name of their master」.  低層永遠換主不換位。

3. 四種可以顛覆統治者的力量。「 There are only four ways in which a ruling group can fall from power: 1) Either it is conquered from without, or 2)it governs so inefficiently that the masses are stirred to revolt, or 3) it allows a strong and discontented Middle Group to come into being, or 4)it loses its own self-confidence and willingness to govern. 

Ultimately the determining factor is the mental attitude of the ruling class itself. The masses never revolt of their own accord, and they never revolt merely because they are oppressed. 因為只要低層沒有比較,他們根本就不會意識到自己是被壓迫的。「1984」中的Party意識歷史上所有統治者們犯的錯誤,包括殺一警百的意識錯誤。殺一警百是不管用的,因為殺了一個反抗者,但如果他的精神還在就會留下「禍根」,所以,Party要改造這些反抗者,將他們的病治好,讓他們好好的活著,完全沒有反抗的活著,不但沒有反抗,還要從內心裡愛Party.

最後,Winston完全失去了對Julia的愛,因為他真的愛「The Big Brother」.


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發表評論 評論 (43 個評論)

回復 穿鞋的蜻蜓 2011-10-27 05:44
SF
回復 華東26 2011-10-27 05:46
1984被拍成非常有名的電影。最有名的台詞是Big Brother『s watching you. 一說Big Brother, 這裡人就知道指什麼了。
回復 練精化氣AAA 2011-10-27 05:50
  
回復 RNSandi 2011-10-27 05:51
穿鞋的蜻蜓: SF
問好
回復 RNSandi 2011-10-27 05:51
華東26: 1984被拍成非常有名的電影。最有名的台詞是Big Brother『s watching you. 一說Big Brother, 這裡人就知道指什麼了。
是這樣的。
回復 RNSandi 2011-10-27 05:52
練精化氣AAA:   
問好
回復 練精化氣AAA 2011-10-27 05:53
RNSandi: 問好
看這些有意思的哈
回復 RNSandi 2011-10-27 05:55
練精化氣AAA: 看這些有意思的哈
你有有意思的書嘛?也介紹一下呀(當然,『麻將必勝秘訣』除外
回復 jjsummer95 2011-10-27 06:00
這本書很有意思。。以前很喜歡這類話題。 現在沒時間了
回復 awang9988 2011-10-27 06:01
  
回復 RNSandi 2011-10-27 06:02
jjsummer95: 這本書很有意思。。以前很喜歡這類話題。 現在沒時間了
是個非常經典名著
回復 RNSandi 2011-10-27 06:02
awang9988:   
  
回復 oneweek 2011-10-27 06:06
俺喜歡看他那本關於豬的書
回復 RNSandi 2011-10-27 06:08
oneweek: 俺喜歡看他那本關於豬的書
Animal Farm
回復 練精化氣AAA 2011-10-27 06:08
RNSandi: 你有有意思的書嘛?也介紹一下呀(當然,『麻將必勝秘訣』除外
回復 瑋哥 2011-10-27 06:50
我看你快脫離咱群眾隊伍了,寫的東東讀起來難度太大
回復 翰山 2011-10-27 07:13
你這個太複雜了點,碰上我不懂英文的,可是很難讀呀?!   發了一文,和你昨天的文,但觀點有些許不同,請閱。
回復 yulinw 2011-10-27 08:03
   社會的三個基本層次:高,中,低----這段很有意思~~
回復 RNSandi 2011-10-27 08:16
yulinw:    社會的三個基本層次:高,中,低----這段很有意思~~
很不幸,金字塔是人類政治社會的固有結構
回復 yulinw 2011-10-27 08:28
RNSandi: 很不幸,金字塔是人類政治社會的固有結構
   既是這樣,也無所謂幸與不幸了~~
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