作者:kyotosizumoto  於 2022-9-5 21:58 發表於 最熱鬧的華人社交網路--貝殼村







1、In late 2017, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) began receiving increasing allegations by various civil society groups that members of the Uyghur and other predominantly Muslim ethnic minority communities were missing or had disappeared in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People』s Republic of China (hereafter 「XUAR」 and 「China」). In 2018, the UN Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances reported a 「dramatic」 increase in cases from XUAR 「with the introduction of 「re-education」 camps in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region by the Government of China」. Numerous research and investigative reports published since that time by a diverse range of non-governmental organizations, think-tanks and media outlets – as well as public accounts by victims – have alleged arbitrary detention on a broad scale in so-called 「camps」, as well as claims of torture and other ill-treatment, including sexual violence, and forced labour, among others.


During its review of China』s periodic report in August 2018, the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination expressed alarm over numerous reports of the detention of large numbers of ethnic Uyghurs and other Muslim minorities, under the pretext of countering religious extremism in XUAR. The Government stated that 「vocational training centres exist for people who had committed 「minor offences.」 In subsequent policy papers, the Government has presented such centres as part of its strategies to counter terrorism and to prevent or counter 「extremism」 in XUAR, while at the same time contributing to development, job creation and poverty alleviation in the region.



3. In light of the breadth and gravity of the allegations, and the nature of information received, OHCHR has sought access to XUAR to verify claims since 2018. In parallel, and further to its global mandate under General Assembly resolution 48/141 and within existing resources, OHCHR has continued to monitor the situation and assess the allegations, including by reviewing and critically analysing publicly available official documentation, as well as research material, satellite imagery and other open-source information, examining their origin, credibility, weight and reliability in line with standard OHCHR methodology. Throughout OHCHR's review, particular attention was given to official Government documentation and information, including laws, policies, statistical data, court decisions, and official statements and White Papers made public by the Government, as well as a number of other documents that are in the public domain and which OHCHR has assessed as highly likely to be authenti c based on strong indicia of official character. OHCHR has also closely studied information presented by the Government, including in the context of its reviews before the UN human rights treaty bodies and in response to UN Special Procedures communications, and examined material submitted to it by academic and other institutions inside China.

鑒於指控的廣度和嚴重性以及所收到信息的性質,人權高專辦自 2018年以來一直尋求與新疆維吾爾自治區聯繫以核實索賠。在執行大會第48/141號決議規定的全球任務的同時,在現有資源範圍內,人權高專辦繼續監測情況並評估指控,包括審查和批判性分析公開的官方文件以及研究材料、衛星圖像和其他開源信息,檢查其來源、可信度、重量和可靠性是否符合標準人權高專辦方法。在人權高專辦的整個審查過程中,特別關注政府官方文件和信息,包括法律、政策、統計數據、法院判決、官方聲明和政府公開的白皮書,以及政府公布的一些其他文件。公有領域,並且人權高專辦根據強烈的官方特徵評估為極有可能是真實的。人權高專辦還仔細研究了政府提供的信息,包括在聯合國人權條約機構審查和回應聯合國特別程序來文的背景下提供的信息,並審查了中國境內學術機構和其他機構提交給它的材料。

4As part of an ongoing process of dialogue, on 17 March 2021, OHCHR formally submitted to the Permanent Mission of China to the United Nations in Geneva a request for specific sets of information, detailing various areas of particular interest, including official data, based on its review of the material up to that stage, but did not receive formal response. On 19 July 2021, OHCHR further proposed a meeting with relevant Government officials to discuss the applicable legal framework as it pertains to counter-terrorism and the prevention and countering of 「extremism」 in XUAR.


5. By way of supplement to the extensive body of documentation, OHCHR also conducted, in accordance with its standard practice and methodology, 40 in-depth interviews with individuals with direct and first-hand knowledge of the situation in XUAR (24 women and 16 men; 23 Uyghur, 16 ethnic Kazakh, 1 ethnic Kyrgyz). Twenty-six of the interviewees stated they had been either detained or had worked in various facilities across XUAR since 2016. In each case, OHCHR assessed the reliability and credibility of these persons , the veracity of the information conveyed, and its coherence with information obtained from other sources. Securing interviews posed significant challenges. Most of the interviews were conducted remotely for COVID-related and/or security reasons. Further to the 「do no harm」 principle , additional measures were taken in accordance with standard OHCHR practice to enhance protection of persons providing information.

作為對大量文件的補充,人權高專辦還按照其標準做法和方法,對直接和第一手了解新疆情況的個人(24 名女性和16名男性;23維吾爾族、16哈薩克族、1吉爾吉斯族)。26名受訪者表示,自2016年以來,他們要麼被拘留,要麼曾在新疆各地的各種設施中工作。人權高專辦在每個案例中評估了這些人的可靠性和可信度、所傳達信息的真實性以及與所獲得信息的一致性從其他來源。確保採訪帶來了重大挑戰。出於COVID 相關和/或安全原因,大多數採訪都是遠程進行的。除了「不傷害」原則之外,還根據人權高專辦的標準做法採取了額外措施,以加強對提供信息的人的保護。

6The assessment contained in this document is based on China』s obligations under international human rights law, contained principally in the human rights treaties to which China is a State Party, in particular the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD), the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT), the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). China has also signed, though not yet ratified, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). As a result, it is obliged as a matter of law to refrain from any acts that would defeat the object and purpose of this treaty. Additionally, China is bound by human rights norms accepted as constituting customary international law, notably with respect to the right to life, the prohibition of discrimination based on race, religion or sex, and the right to freedom of religion. Moreover, some human rights norms are also considered to constitute jus cogens or peremptory norms of international law, accepted and recognized by the international community of States as a whole as a norm from which no derogation is permitted under any circumstances. These include the prohibitions of arbitrary deprivation of life, torture, slavery, arbitrary detention, racial discrimination, and the commission of international crimes including crimes against humanity. Finally, OHCHR considered standards contained in United Nations instruments on counter-terrorism and the prevention and countering of violent extremism, as well as the International Labour Organization』s labour rights conventions.

本文件中的評估基於中國在國際人權法下的義務,主要包含在中國作為締約國的人權條約中,特別是《消除一切形式種族歧視公約》(CERD)、 《禁止酷刑和其他殘忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或處罰公約》(CAT)、《消除對婦女一切形式歧視公約》(CEDAW)、《兒童權利公約》(CRC)、《國際經濟公約》 、社會和文化權利 (CESCR) 和《殘疾人權利公約》 (CRPD)。中國還簽署了《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》(ICCPR),但尚未批准。因此,在法律上,它有義務避免任何有損本條約目標和宗旨的行為。此外,中國受公認構成習慣國際法的人權規範的約束,特別是在生命權、禁止基於種族、宗教或性別的歧視以及宗教自由權方面。此外,一些人權規範也被認為是國際法的強製法或強制性規範,被國際社會作為一個整體接受和承認,是在任何情況下都不允許減損的規範。其中包括禁止任意剝奪生命、酷刑、奴役、任意拘留、種族歧視和犯下包括危害人類罪在內的國際罪行。最後,人權高專辦審議了聯合國關於反恐和預防和打擊暴力極端主義的文書以及國際勞工組織的勞工權利公約中包含的標準。

7、The assessment was shared with the Government for factual comments, as per standard OHCHR practice. The Government』s response, further to its request, is annexed to this report.


8、Separately, the Government extended an invitation to the High Commissioner to visit China in September 2018. Owing to the COVID-19 pandemic and the need to discuss the parameters of such a visit, agreement for the visit was only reached in March 2022. As part of her visit, it was agreed with the Government of China that the High Commissioner would also visit XUAR, following deployment of an advance team to prepare for her visit, which took place in April and May 2022.






9. XUAR is China's largest region, covering one-sixth of its total territory, with a population of 25.85 million. It is rich in resources such as coal, gas, oil, lithium, zinc and lead, as well as being a major source of agricultural production, such as of cotton. As it shares external borders with Afghanistan, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russian Federation and Tajikistan, the region also provides important routes and access to Central Asian markets and beyond.


10Demographically, XUAR has been one of the fastest growing regions in China and its ethnic composition has gradually shifted since 1949.In 1953, at the time of the first census, over 75 per cent of the total population in the region was constituted by Uyghurs, who are predominantly Sunni Muslim, with ethnic Han Chinese accounting for seven per cent. Other predominantly Muslim ethnic groups living in the region include, in alphabetical sequence, Hui, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Mongol, and Tajik peoples. According to the latest census and the Government』s White Paper on 「Xinjiang Population Dynamics and Data」, while the overall population of both Han and Uyghur ethnic groups has grown, the Uyghur population now constitutes about 45 per cent of the region』s total and Han Chinese about 42 per cent. These shifts appear to be largely the consequence of ethnic Han migration into the western regions, including as a result of incentives provided by Government policies.


11Historically, the population of XUAR is one of the poorest in China. It has been the focus of numerous development and poverty alleviation policies by the central authorities.According to State media, 2.3 million people in XUAR emerged from poverty between 2014 and 2018, of which 1.9 million were from southern Xinjiang, which has the highest population of ethnic groups. According to official Government information, in 2021, Xinjiang registered seven per cent growth in gross domestic product (GDP) and an increase of per capita disposable income for urban and rural residents of eight per cent and 10.8 per cent. Moreover, 1.69 million rural houses and 1.56 million government-subsidized housing projects in cities and towns have reportedly been constructed. UN human rights mechanisms have raised concerns, however, about discrimination in economic, social and cultural spheres in ethnic regions, including XUAR, over many years.


12. In July 2009, riots broke out in the regional capital Urumqi. The then United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights called for an investigation into the causes of the violence. The Government reported that 「from 1990 to the end of 2016, separatist, terrorist and extremist forces launched thousands of terrorist attacks in Xinjiang, killing large numbers of innocent people and hundreds of police officers, and causing immeasurable damage to property」. There were also a series of violent incidents in different Chinese cities outside XUAR, killing scores of people, and which the Government, for its part, has consistently characterised as terrorist in character. At the same time, the involvement of numbers of Uyghurs as fighters in armed groups, including in Afghanistan and Syria, subject to UN counter-terrorism sanctions, continued to be reported and remained a cause for concern for both the Chinese authorities and more widely in the international community.


13In May 2014, in the wake of these developments, the Government launched what it termed a 「Strike Hard」 campaign」 to combat terrorist threats, which it linked to religious 「extremism」 and separatism in XUAR. In a 2019 White Paper, the Government stated that 「since 2014, Xinjiang has destroyed 1,588 violent and terrorist gangs, arrested 12,995 terrorists, seized 2,052 explosive devices, punished 30,645 people for 4,858 illegal religious activities, and confiscated 345,229 copies of illegal religious materials」. The Government has asserted the success of its approach, reporting that there have been no terrorist incidents in XUAR since 2016.

政府在2019年的白皮書中表示,「2014年以來,新疆共搗毀暴力恐怖團伙1588個,抓獲恐怖分子12995人,繳獲爆炸裝置2052件,查處非法宗教活動4858件30645 人,收繳非法宗教資料345229份。政府聲稱其方法取得了成功,報告稱自2016年以來新疆沒有發生恐怖事件。









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回復 vector 2022-9-6 08:23
回復 john71 2022-9-7 00:28
vector: 我認為,任何一個在中國有過求學,工作經歷的的人,都知道新疆問題,是西方的一些政客,一些媒體人們,在放他們的西狗屁,是無恥的造謠.
回復 vector 2022-9-7 03:42
john71: 乞求上帝佛主阿拉,讓你們一家都進入新疆集中營吧!!!讓助紂為虐的,睜眼說瞎話的和揣著明白裝糊塗的都得到應有的報應吧!
回復 john71 2022-9-9 00:10
vector: 你是個人嗎?垃圾.

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