倍可親

谷歌翻譯聯合國新疆人權評估1-2

作者:kyotosizumoto  於 2022-9-5 21:58 發表於 最熱鬧的華人社交網路--貝殼村

作者分類:劉正教授每日時事評論|通用分類:熱點雜談|已有4評論

谷歌翻譯聯合國新疆人權評估1

 

Introduction

一、介紹

 

1、In late 2017, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) began receiving increasing allegations by various civil society groups that members of the Uyghur and other predominantly Muslim ethnic minority communities were missing or had disappeared in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of the People』s Republic of China (hereafter 「XUAR」 and 「China」). In 2018, the UN Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances reported a 「dramatic」 increase in cases from XUAR 「with the introduction of 「re-education」 camps in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region by the Government of China」. Numerous research and investigative reports published since that time by a diverse range of non-governmental organizations, think-tanks and media outlets – as well as public accounts by victims – have alleged arbitrary detention on a broad scale in so-called 「camps」, as well as claims of torture and other ill-treatment, including sexual violence, and forced labour, among others.

2017年底,聯合國人權事務高級專員辦事處(OHCHR)開始收到各種民間社會團體越來越多的指控,稱維吾爾族和其他以穆斯林為主的少數民族社區成員在新疆維吾爾自治區失蹤或失蹤。中華人民共和國(以下簡稱「新疆」和「中國2018年,聯合國強迫或非自願失蹤問題工作組報告說,「隨著中國政府在新疆維吾爾自治區設立了『再教育』營」,新疆的案件「急劇」增加。自那時以來,各種非政府組織、智囊團和媒體以及受害者的公共賬戶發表的大量研究和調查報告都指控在所謂的「集中營」中大規模任意拘留,以及關於酷刑和其他虐待的指控,包括性暴力和強迫勞動等。

During its review of China』s periodic report in August 2018, the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination expressed alarm over numerous reports of the detention of large numbers of ethnic Uyghurs and other Muslim minorities, under the pretext of countering religious extremism in XUAR. The Government stated that 「vocational training centres exist for people who had committed 「minor offences.」 In subsequent policy papers, the Government has presented such centres as part of its strategies to counter terrorism and to prevent or counter 「extremism」 in XUAR, while at the same time contributing to development, job creation and poverty alleviation in the region.

2、

2018年8月審查中國定期報告期間,聯合國消除種族歧視委員會對多份關於以打擊新疆的宗教極端主義為借口,拘留大量維吾爾族和其他穆斯林少數民族。政府表示,為犯有「輕微罪行」的人設立了職業培訓中心。在隨後的政策文件中,政府將這些中心作為其在新疆反恐和預防或打擊「極端主義」戰略的一部分,同時為該地區的發展、創造就業和減貧做出貢獻。

3. In light of the breadth and gravity of the allegations, and the nature of information received, OHCHR has sought access to XUAR to verify claims since 2018. In parallel, and further to its global mandate under General Assembly resolution 48/141 and within existing resources, OHCHR has continued to monitor the situation and assess the allegations, including by reviewing and critically analysing publicly available official documentation, as well as research material, satellite imagery and other open-source information, examining their origin, credibility, weight and reliability in line with standard OHCHR methodology. Throughout OHCHR's review, particular attention was given to official Government documentation and information, including laws, policies, statistical data, court decisions, and official statements and White Papers made public by the Government, as well as a number of other documents that are in the public domain and which OHCHR has assessed as highly likely to be authenti c based on strong indicia of official character. OHCHR has also closely studied information presented by the Government, including in the context of its reviews before the UN human rights treaty bodies and in response to UN Special Procedures communications, and examined material submitted to it by academic and other institutions inside China.

鑒於指控的廣度和嚴重性以及所收到信息的性質,人權高專辦自 2018年以來一直尋求與新疆維吾爾自治區聯繫以核實索賠。在執行大會第48/141號決議規定的全球任務的同時,在現有資源範圍內,人權高專辦繼續監測情況並評估指控,包括審查和批判性分析公開的官方文件以及研究材料、衛星圖像和其他開源信息,檢查其來源、可信度、重量和可靠性是否符合標準人權高專辦方法。在人權高專辦的整個審查過程中,特別關注政府官方文件和信息,包括法律、政策、統計數據、法院判決、官方聲明和政府公開的白皮書,以及政府公布的一些其他文件。公有領域,並且人權高專辦根據強烈的官方特徵評估為極有可能是真實的。人權高專辦還仔細研究了政府提供的信息,包括在聯合國人權條約機構審查和回應聯合國特別程序來文的背景下提供的信息,並審查了中國境內學術機構和其他機構提交給它的材料。

4As part of an ongoing process of dialogue, on 17 March 2021, OHCHR formally submitted to the Permanent Mission of China to the United Nations in Geneva a request for specific sets of information, detailing various areas of particular interest, including official data, based on its review of the material up to that stage, but did not receive formal response. On 19 July 2021, OHCHR further proposed a meeting with relevant Government officials to discuss the applicable legal framework as it pertains to counter-terrorism and the prevention and countering of 「extremism」 in XUAR.

作為正在進行的對話進程的一部分,人權高專辦於2021年3月17日正式向中國常駐日內瓦聯合國代表團提交了一份要求提供具體信息集的請求,其中詳細說明了各個特別感興趣的領域,包括官方數據,基於其對材料的審查直至該階段,但未收到正式答覆。2021年7月19日,人權高專辦進一步提議與相關政府官員舉行會議,討論適用的法律框架,因為它與新疆的反恐和預防和打擊「極端主義」有關。

5. By way of supplement to the extensive body of documentation, OHCHR also conducted, in accordance with its standard practice and methodology, 40 in-depth interviews with individuals with direct and first-hand knowledge of the situation in XUAR (24 women and 16 men; 23 Uyghur, 16 ethnic Kazakh, 1 ethnic Kyrgyz). Twenty-six of the interviewees stated they had been either detained or had worked in various facilities across XUAR since 2016. In each case, OHCHR assessed the reliability and credibility of these persons , the veracity of the information conveyed, and its coherence with information obtained from other sources. Securing interviews posed significant challenges. Most of the interviews were conducted remotely for COVID-related and/or security reasons. Further to the 「do no harm」 principle , additional measures were taken in accordance with standard OHCHR practice to enhance protection of persons providing information.

作為對大量文件的補充,人權高專辦還按照其標準做法和方法,對直接和第一手了解新疆情況的個人(24 名女性和16名男性;23維吾爾族、16哈薩克族、1吉爾吉斯族)。26名受訪者表示,自2016年以來,他們要麼被拘留,要麼曾在新疆各地的各種設施中工作。人權高專辦在每個案例中評估了這些人的可靠性和可信度、所傳達信息的真實性以及與所獲得信息的一致性從其他來源。確保採訪帶來了重大挑戰。出於COVID 相關和/或安全原因,大多數採訪都是遠程進行的。除了「不傷害」原則之外,還根據人權高專辦的標準做法採取了額外措施,以加強對提供信息的人的保護。

6The assessment contained in this document is based on China』s obligations under international human rights law, contained principally in the human rights treaties to which China is a State Party, in particular the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD), the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT), the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). China has also signed, though not yet ratified, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). As a result, it is obliged as a matter of law to refrain from any acts that would defeat the object and purpose of this treaty. Additionally, China is bound by human rights norms accepted as constituting customary international law, notably with respect to the right to life, the prohibition of discrimination based on race, religion or sex, and the right to freedom of religion. Moreover, some human rights norms are also considered to constitute jus cogens or peremptory norms of international law, accepted and recognized by the international community of States as a whole as a norm from which no derogation is permitted under any circumstances. These include the prohibitions of arbitrary deprivation of life, torture, slavery, arbitrary detention, racial discrimination, and the commission of international crimes including crimes against humanity. Finally, OHCHR considered standards contained in United Nations instruments on counter-terrorism and the prevention and countering of violent extremism, as well as the International Labour Organization』s labour rights conventions.

本文件中的評估基於中國在國際人權法下的義務,主要包含在中國作為締約國的人權條約中,特別是《消除一切形式種族歧視公約》(CERD)、 《禁止酷刑和其他殘忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或處罰公約》(CAT)、《消除對婦女一切形式歧視公約》(CEDAW)、《兒童權利公約》(CRC)、《國際經濟公約》 、社會和文化權利 (CESCR) 和《殘疾人權利公約》 (CRPD)。中國還簽署了《公民權利和政治權利國際公約》(ICCPR),但尚未批准。因此,在法律上,它有義務避免任何有損本條約目標和宗旨的行為。此外,中國受公認構成習慣國際法的人權規範的約束,特別是在生命權、禁止基於種族、宗教或性別的歧視以及宗教自由權方面。此外,一些人權規範也被認為是國際法的強製法或強制性規範,被國際社會作為一個整體接受和承認,是在任何情況下都不允許減損的規範。其中包括禁止任意剝奪生命、酷刑、奴役、任意拘留、種族歧視和犯下包括危害人類罪在內的國際罪行。最後,人權高專辦審議了聯合國關於反恐和預防和打擊暴力極端主義的文書以及國際勞工組織的勞工權利公約中包含的標準。

7、The assessment was shared with the Government for factual comments, as per standard OHCHR practice. The Government』s response, further to its request, is annexed to this report.

按照人權高專辦的標準做法,該評估已與政府分享,以徵求事實意見.政府應其要求作出的回應,附於本報告之後。

8、Separately, the Government extended an invitation to the High Commissioner to visit China in September 2018. Owing to the COVID-19 pandemic and the need to discuss the parameters of such a visit, agreement for the visit was only reached in March 2022. As part of her visit, it was agreed with the Government of China that the High Commissioner would also visit XUAR, following deployment of an advance team to prepare for her visit, which took place in April and May 2022.

另外,政府向高級專員發出了2018年9月訪問中國的邀請。由於COVID-19大流行以及有必要討論這樣的參數訪問,直到2022年3月才達成訪問協議。作為訪問的一部分,高級專員與中國政府商定,高級專員也將訪問新疆,隨後部署了一個先遣隊為她的訪問做準備。地點在2022年4月和5月。


谷歌翻譯聯合國新疆人權評估2

Background

一、背景

 

9. XUAR is China's largest region, covering one-sixth of its total territory, with a population of 25.85 million. It is rich in resources such as coal, gas, oil, lithium, zinc and lead, as well as being a major source of agricultural production, such as of cotton. As it shares external borders with Afghanistan, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russian Federation and Tajikistan, the region also provides important routes and access to Central Asian markets and beyond.

新疆是中國面積最大的地區,占國土面積的六分之一,人口2585萬。它擁有豐富的煤炭、天然氣、石油、鋰、鋅和鉛等資源,是棉花等農業生產的主要來源。由於與阿富汗、印度、哈薩克、吉爾吉斯斯坦、蒙古、巴基斯坦、俄羅斯聯邦和塔吉克接壤,該地區還提供了通往中亞及其他地區市場的重要路線和通道。

10Demographically, XUAR has been one of the fastest growing regions in China and its ethnic composition has gradually shifted since 1949.In 1953, at the time of the first census, over 75 per cent of the total population in the region was constituted by Uyghurs, who are predominantly Sunni Muslim, with ethnic Han Chinese accounting for seven per cent. Other predominantly Muslim ethnic groups living in the region include, in alphabetical sequence, Hui, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Mongol, and Tajik peoples. According to the latest census and the Government』s White Paper on 「Xinjiang Population Dynamics and Data」, while the overall population of both Han and Uyghur ethnic groups has grown, the Uyghur population now constitutes about 45 per cent of the region』s total and Han Chinese about 42 per cent. These shifts appear to be largely the consequence of ethnic Han migration into the western regions, including as a result of incentives provided by Government policies.

在人口方面,新疆維吾爾自治區一直是中國發展最快的地區之一,其民族構成自1949年以來逐漸發生變化。1953年,在第一次人口普查時,該地區總人口的75%以上由維吾爾人構成,主要是遜尼派穆斯林,漢族佔7%。居住在該地區的其他主要穆斯林民族包括按字母順序排列的回族、哈薩克族、吉爾吉斯族、蒙古族和塔吉克族。根據最新的人口普查和政府的「新疆人口動態和數據」白皮書,雖然漢族和維吾爾族的總人口都在增長,但維吾爾族人口現在佔全區總人口的45%左右,漢族人口約42%。這些轉變似乎主要是漢族遷移到西部地區的結果,包括政府政策提供的激勵措施的結果。

11Historically, the population of XUAR is one of the poorest in China. It has been the focus of numerous development and poverty alleviation policies by the central authorities.According to State media, 2.3 million people in XUAR emerged from poverty between 2014 and 2018, of which 1.9 million were from southern Xinjiang, which has the highest population of ethnic groups. According to official Government information, in 2021, Xinjiang registered seven per cent growth in gross domestic product (GDP) and an increase of per capita disposable income for urban and rural residents of eight per cent and 10.8 per cent. Moreover, 1.69 million rural houses and 1.56 million government-subsidized housing projects in cities and towns have reportedly been constructed. UN human rights mechanisms have raised concerns, however, about discrimination in economic, social and cultural spheres in ethnic regions, including XUAR, over many years.

從歷史上看,新疆的人口是中國最貧困的地區之一。它一直是中央多項發展和扶貧政策的重點。據官方媒體報道,2014年至2018年,新疆有230萬人擺脫貧困,其中190萬人來自南疆,南疆是中國民族人口最多的地區。根據政府官方信息,2021年,新疆國內生產總值(GDP)增長7%,城鄉居民人均可支配收入分別增長8%和10.8%。另有169萬套農村住房和156萬套城鎮保障性安居工程。然而,多年來,聯合國人權機制對包括新疆在內的少數民族地區的經濟、社會和文化領域的歧視提出了擔憂。

12. In July 2009, riots broke out in the regional capital Urumqi. The then United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights called for an investigation into the causes of the violence. The Government reported that 「from 1990 to the end of 2016, separatist, terrorist and extremist forces launched thousands of terrorist attacks in Xinjiang, killing large numbers of innocent people and hundreds of police officers, and causing immeasurable damage to property」. There were also a series of violent incidents in different Chinese cities outside XUAR, killing scores of people, and which the Government, for its part, has consistently characterised as terrorist in character. At the same time, the involvement of numbers of Uyghurs as fighters in armed groups, including in Afghanistan and Syria, subject to UN counter-terrorism sanctions, continued to be reported and remained a cause for concern for both the Chinese authorities and more widely in the international community.

2009年7月自治區首府烏魯木齊爆發騷亂時任聯合國人權事務高級專員呼籲調查暴力起因。政府報告稱「1990年至2016年底,分裂、恐怖、極端勢力在新疆發動了數千起恐怖襲擊,造成大量人員死亡。無辜人民和數百名警察,並造成無法估量的財產損失」。新疆以外的中國不同城市也發生了一系列暴力事件,造成數十人死亡,而政府方面一直將其定性為恐怖分子。與此同時,繼續有報道稱,許多維吾爾人作為戰鬥人員參與包括阿富汗和敘利亞在內的武裝團體,並受到聯合國反恐制裁,這仍然是中國當局和更廣泛關注的原因。2014年5月,隨著這些事態發展,政府發起了所謂的「嚴厲打擊」運動,以打擊恐怖主義威脅,並將其與新疆的宗教「極端主義」和分裂主義聯繫起來。

13In May 2014, in the wake of these developments, the Government launched what it termed a 「Strike Hard」 campaign」 to combat terrorist threats, which it linked to religious 「extremism」 and separatism in XUAR. In a 2019 White Paper, the Government stated that 「since 2014, Xinjiang has destroyed 1,588 violent and terrorist gangs, arrested 12,995 terrorists, seized 2,052 explosive devices, punished 30,645 people for 4,858 illegal religious activities, and confiscated 345,229 copies of illegal religious materials」. The Government has asserted the success of its approach, reporting that there have been no terrorist incidents in XUAR since 2016.

政府在2019年的白皮書中表示,「2014年以來,新疆共搗毀暴力恐怖團伙1588個,抓獲恐怖分子12995人,繳獲爆炸裝置2052件,查處非法宗教活動4858件30645 人,收繳非法宗教資料345229份。政府聲稱其方法取得了成功,報告稱自2016年以來新疆沒有發生恐怖事件。


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發表評論 評論 (4 個評論)

回復 vector 2022-9-6 08:23
我認為,任何一個在中國有過求學,工作經歷的的人,都知道新疆問題,是西方的一些政客,一些媒體人們,在放他們的西狗屁,是無恥的造謠.
回復 john71 2022-9-7 00:28
vector: 我認為,任何一個在中國有過求學,工作經歷的的人,都知道新疆問題,是西方的一些政客,一些媒體人們,在放他們的西狗屁,是無恥的造謠.
乞求上帝佛主阿拉,讓你們一家都進入新疆集中營吧!!!讓助紂為虐的,睜眼說瞎話的和揣著明白裝糊塗的都得到應有的報應吧!
回復 vector 2022-9-7 03:42
john71: 乞求上帝佛主阿拉,讓你們一家都進入新疆集中營吧!!!讓助紂為虐的,睜眼說瞎話的和揣著明白裝糊塗的都得到應有的報應吧!
你是個人嗎?垃圾.
造謠說假話遭雷劈哦
回復 john71 2022-9-9 00:10
vector: 你是個人嗎?垃圾.
造謠說假話遭雷劈哦
賊喊捉賊是您的強項,假大空牆國的五毛居然敢說「造謠說假話要遭雷劈」,你和你的主子獨裁中共政府有哪一刻不在撒謊愚民的?謊言大國又是如何而來的?全世界的大翻譯運動又是什麼?你死命擁護一個如此邪惡極權的政府,這不是助紂為虐是什麼?!!!你說新疆木有集中營,那我說應該讓你們一家都進入新疆集中營有錯嗎?為了一個你認為根本不存在的集中營你緊張激動個鳥啊?     

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